international classification of crime for statistical purposes

Reliance on statutory language is inflexible and not comprehensive, and it is unduly focused on limited input sources (reports from police/law enforcement or individual victims). Recommendation 5.1: The attribute-based classification of offenses described in brief in Sections 5.2.1–5.2.2 and in detail in Appendix D should be used as an initial framework for. In subcategories for threat, we seek to disentangle the type of gun brandishing/display-but-no-firing occurrences that would currently be counted as aggravated assault from those where a shot is fired (but does not cause injury). We elevate both those offenses to second-level status (3.1 and 3.2, respectively), to increase their visibility as crime categories. I. And the Irish Crime Classification System’s “condensed” formulation plays loosely with pure hierarchical layering but, doing so in the interest of distilling information of peak public interest, is an elegant solution to conveying a large quantity of information in approachable form. The unit of classification of the ICCS is the act that constitutes a criminal offence. Other acts causing harm or intending to cause harm to the person, 3.1.3. Acts involving the movement or dumping of waste, 10.3. This article presents the International Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes (ICCS) developed by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. In the next subsection, we describe in detail the most prominent example in which we opted to fold an attribute into the categories themselves: Where the ICCS would collect information about assaults and threats and rely on a weapon-use attribute to go into more detail, we judged it a priority to create firearm-specific subcategories, so that a U.S. crime statistics system would be equipped to assess the number of shootings. Unlawful access to a computer system, 5.3.2. As a first cut, we think it best to add a note that our notion of bribery includes both sides but not to define separate categories. Type of property involved (stolen, damaged, etc.) The ICCS’s offense category “participation in an organized criminal group” seemed overly broad, and it was difficult to identify specific crimes related to organized crime—other than racketeering offenses—in its stead. But, while high-level aggregates like states or the nation as a whole may be of little direct value for many domestic crime statistics users, easing cross-national comparison of types of crimes is also a useful goal. Norms, tools, templates, guidelines, etc. The ICCS is not a classification that can or should be applied directly, exactly as is, without any customization based on the user/stakeholder needs described in Chapter 3—but, by the same token, extensive departure from the ICCS structure would undermine the classification’s value for comparative purposes. The following set of attributes—some covering the complete crime incident (and so, potentially, multiple offenses); others applying to each offense within an incident; and the remainder describing the victim, (suspected) offender/perpetrator, and victim/offender relationship—is of coequal importance in specifying this suggested classification. Acts that cause environmental pollution or degradation, 10.2. 74/247, International cooperation and information exchange, The Monitoring Illicit Arms Flows Initiative, Trafficking in persons and smuggling of migrants, Manual for criminal justice practitioners and its annexes, Global Programme against Money Laundering, Conference of the Parties to Organized Crime Convention, Mandate of the Terrorism Prevention Branch, Organization of the Terrorism Prevention Branch, Strengthening international cooperation in criminal matters, Global Programme for Combating Wildlife and Forest Crime, International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime, Blue Heart Campaign against human trafficking, 20th anniversary of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC20), Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, Countering transnational organized crime and illicit trafficking/drug trafficking, Prevention, treatment and reintegration, and alternative development. But the decisions go the opposite direction, too. BUILDING FROM AND WEIGHING ALL of the preceding material—the range of crime-related information currently gathered (or that could be gathered) in existing data collections, the user and stakeholder input obtained at the panel’s workshop-style sessions, and the examples of past and current crime classification schemes—we arrive at the main purpose and sole formal recommendation in this first report. UN-CTS is UNODC's primary instrument for collecting crime data. This type of. Other criminal acts not elsewhere classified. In one sentence, the 1929 UCR manual sets the precedent for the still-current practice of firearm involvement being a trigger for an assault being deemed aggravated—these aggravated assaults are “most likely to be reported to the police” precisely “because of the gravity of their nature and because in each case the overt act is accompanied by the use of a weapon or means likely to produce death or great bodily harm.” However, a few sentences later, “offenses such as shooting, or throwing at or into railroad trains[,] have been omitted from the aggravated assault group”—not because they lack the potential to produce death or great bodily harm, but because “they are usually offenses of malicious mischief by children.”. Interest in understanding crime surged in the 1920s, which proved to be a pivotal decade for the collection of nationwide crime statistics. Evaluation in the Project/Programme cycle, Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, Convention against the Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, Regional Programme for Afghanistan and Neighbouring Countries, Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (CCPCJ), Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocols (UNTOC/COP), Conference of the States Parties to the United Nations Convention against Corruption (COSP), Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (UN.GIFT), IMOLIN - the international money laundering information network, International Anti-Corruption Day (9 December), International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking (26 June), International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), United Nations Trust Fund for Victims of Human Trafficking, United Nations drug, crime and terrorism treaties, Roadmap for the Implementation of the ICCS in National Contexts, EU guidelines for the International Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes - ICCS. To be clear, our use of the phrase “by all respondents or sources” is intended to connote that we anticipate that both police-report data and survey-based measures of crime and victimization (at a minimum) will have essential roles in a modern crime measurement system. While it can certainly be argued that this hybrid structure adds unnecessary complexity, we think that its benefits in providing flexibility and range outweigh such added complexity. Due to its size, we present a “short” form in-line with Section 5.2.1 along with a corresponding set of attributes (Section 5.2.2); the full “long” form of the classification, with definitions and example of specific inclusions for each category is in one of the appendixes to the entire report, Appendix D. We close in Section 5.3 with a short preview of “next steps” and issues awaiting consideration in our second, final report. Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. Acts of forgery/counterfeiting documents, 7.2.4. Other injurious acts of a sexual nature, 4.1.2. This suggests a basic conclusion: Conclusion 5.4: Full-scale adoption of incident-based crime reporting by all respondents or sources, that is sufficiently detailed to permit accurate classification and extensive disaggregation and analysis, is essential to achieving the kind of flexibility in crime statistics afforded by a modern crime classification. some white-collar offense/fraud variants (where the first signal of the crime in question might not be a report to law enforcement at all, but rather the filing of charges or complaints). The aim of the ICCS is to provide a common ground for the production of criminal statistics around the world. Similarly, 2.3.1 abduction of a minor is an offense in which both victim age and the victim-offender relationship combine to create such materially different offenses that separate categories seem justified, relative to just general “abduction” or illegal restraint with the accompanying attributes. View our suggested citation for this chapter. Certainly, one could argue for an NCVS-type algorithm that may flag one of several offenses within a given incident as the “most serious” in some sense—but it is inherently wasteful to discard valuable information through imposition of an arbitrary Hierarchy Rule. In the Los Angeles case, reanalysis of a sample of nearly 4,000 case files across the seven years 2008–2014 suggested that, in each of those years, aggravated assault had been undercounted by roughly 36 percent (3,700 cases) due to misclassification of events as simple assault (Bustamante, 2015:9).3, The Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) case is illustrative of other sources of error in distinguishing assault types, raising topics we will return to in our second report as they are more the province of implementation and methodology than fundamental classification. The problem is further exacerbated by discordance between the records system’s routine for ranking the Crime Class Codes and the UCR Program’s hierarchy rule for Summary Reporting System data; to wit, in an incident in which a person is kidnapped by gunpoint/threatened force, the kidnapping code would outrank the element of (UCR aggravated) assault (and logically so, given that the circumstances of the kidnapping would be of primary investigative importance), yet in the UCR the aggravated assault would be the ranking offense for summary purposes. The International Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes (ICCS) defines and codes all crimes, thus setting a framework for criminal offences that all countries can adopt when collecting data on crime. Accordingly, in the parlance of a statistical classification, we seek to partition “crime” into offense categories, such that each individual offense corresponds to one and only one category. French, The International Classification of Crimes for Statistical Purposes is a methodology based on the description of crime behavior that will improve the coherence and international comparability of crime statistics. [However,] it is clear that if either of the foregoing definitions were adhered to, a large number of unimportant and petty offenses would be included in this class. Arguably, this definition creates the necessary opening for assaults involving only hands/fists, feet, and such, but that do lead to serious, life-threatening injury, to be deemed aggravated assault, and the “automatic” inclusion as aggravated assault would come about through the use of an external weapon. because of the age of either the victim or the perpetrator—and shift it from the catch-all category 11 to category 8, where it seems a more natural fit (and which avoids truancy/absence from school from falling in the same category with treason and genocide). 4Similar mismatches occur for the (admittedly rarer) Penal Code-defined offense of mayhem, serious assault resulting in permanent disfigurement/mutilation. Yet the second, contradictory impulse is also very strong, and derives from the specific topic matter at hand: In working with “crime,” a break from the meaning (if not the specific language) of criminal law can only be taken so far. Other unlawful acts leading to death, 2.1.1. We retain the ICCS’s per-offense attribute of cybercrime involvement—a binary yes/no flag based on whether computer systems or data were integral to the modus operandi of the offense, and the offenses listed under category 5.3 in our hierarchy are explicitly computer-centric. D. Advantages of the NCVS E. Disadvantages of the NCVS VI. Meanwhile, inasmuch as the content of the ICCS’s alcohol and tobacco plank seemed to deal with taxation/revenue policy, we combined the two with another “sin tax” category with variation by state—gambling—as a subcategory under 8.4 acts contrary to public revenue or regulatory provisions. Not a MyNAP member yet? As does the FFRC, we add a subcategory for fraud against businesses or establishments (including nonprofit organizations); the ICCS recognizes, The ICCS builds from other United Nations documents to define harassment as, at minimum, “improper behaviour directed at and which is offensive to a person by another person who reasonably knew the behaviour was offensive. ); water-borne vehicle; airport or bus/train terminal or station; parking lot or garage; dock, wharf, or modal terminal; other. That said, we found the ICCS an ideal base to work with because it corresponds closely with our desired principles. However, particularly given its placement in the list (following three broad headings of violent crime and before the purely property-based crime category), we tend to think of the category as violent crimes that involve property. In the ICCS, category 4—using our revised title, acts of violence or threatened violence against a person that involve property—is effectively synonymous with robbery. Negligence in situations of persons under care, 2.7.1.1 Negligence in situations of children under care; 2.7.1.2 Negligence in situations of other dependent persons under care; 2.7.1.3 Other negligence in situations of persons under care, 2.7.3. The ICCS was endorsed by the United Nations Statistical Commission, at its 46th session in March 2015, and the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (CCPCJ) at its 24th session in May 2015 as an international statistical standard for data collection. possession of personal-consumption amounts (and the individual state definition would determine whether the event is “unlawful” or not). Unlawful possession or use of controlled drugs for personal consumption, 6.2. Unlawful acts involving drug equipment or paraphernalia, 6.5. Stating the problem more generally, we recognize that achieving categories that are mutually exclusive and exhaustive requires the drawing of sharp lines between events and circumstances that may be ambiguous and would appear different to different observers. This includes objectionable or unacceptable conduct that demeans, belittles or causes personal humiliation or embarrassment to an individual.” Again, we find that this definition is incomplete, rather than strictly inaccurate, because the behavior in question is not specified as a pattern of repeated conduct. Other acts leading to death by suicide, 1.6. For at least baseline concordance with the actions for which law enforcement officers can make arrests and that the justice system can pursue charges, it would be useful for the main thrust of the classification to resemble a list of known, identifiable offenses. To derive statistics about crime – to estimate its levels and trends, assess its costs to and impacts on society, and inform law enforcement approaches to prevent it – a conceptual framework for defining and thinking about crime is virtually a prerequisite. International Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes (ICCS) Published : June 2019 Number printed : 500 เล่ม Published by : United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime This hybrid approach combines, as coequal companions, a classical listing of criminal offense categories (based on behavioral definitions, and invoking their applicability to unlawful behaviors as appropriate to account for state/local variation in underlying law) and a list of attributes (or contextual variables) to be collected about each offense or incident. Robbery of an establishment or institution, 4.2. Participation in a terrorist group, 9.4.3. Burglary of residential/private premises, 5.2.1. Conclusion. Our panel’s charge (Appendix A) directly suggests some of these, including that (1) the suggested classification should not be limited to current crime statistics’ traditional focus on. EU guidelines for the International Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes — ICCS 5 The International Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes (ICCS) is developed by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the first version was published in 2015 ( 1 ). So, for instance, in 2.3.1 abduction of a minor, 3.5 sexual exploitation of children, and 8.9 acts contrary to juvenile justice regulations or involving juveniles/minors—among other places in the classification—we decline to suggest a fixed, uniform age cut-off that distinguishes minors/juveniles/children from adults. The ICCS is the tool to understand crime extent and drivers. 4 Historical and Extant Classifications of Crime, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Modernizing Crime Statistics: Report 1: Defining and Classifying Crime, Proposed Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes, 5.1 OBJECTIVES FOR A MODERN CRIME CLASSIFICATION, 5.2.1 Suggested Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes (Short Version), 5.2.2 Provisional Set of Attributes or Tags to Accompany Proposed Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes, 5.2.3 Changes and Deviations from the ICCS and from Current U.S. Crime Measurement Norms, National Center for Victims of Crime (2007), 1 Introduction: Crime Statistics in the United States, 2 Current Scope and State of Nationally Compiled Crime Data, 5 Proposed Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes, Appendix A: Charge to the Panel on Modernizing the Nation's Crime Statistics, Appendix B: Participants in the Panel's Workshop-Style Meetings and Regular Sessions, Appendix C: Alternative and Example Classifications of Crime, Appendix D: Detailed Definitions and Exclusions, Panel's Proposed Classification of Crime, Appendix E: Biographical Sketches of Panel Members and Staff, Acts leading to death or intending to cause death, Acts causing harm or intending to cause harm to the person, Acts of violence or threatened violence against a person that involve property, Acts involving fraud, deception, or corruption, Acts against public safety and national security, Acts against the natural environment or against animals, Other criminal acts not elsewhere classified, – Residential location: Residence or home; school or college residential facility; nursing care or assisted living facility; other, – Store or retail: Grocery store or supermarket; convenience store; liquor store; pharmacy or drugstore; department or discount store; specialty store; shopping mall; auto dealership; other, – Financial institution: Bank or savings and loan; automated teller machine (ATM) separate from bank; other, – Commercial establishment: Commercial or office building; hotel, motel, or other lodging; service or gas station; rental storage facility; farm or agricultural facility; industrial site; other, – Entertainment venue: Bar or nightclub; restaurant; theater; stadium/arena; gambling facility (casino/racetrack); other, – School grounds and academic buildings: College/university; secondary; middle; elementary, – Civic or justice system establishment: Hospital, medical office, or clinic; daycare or child care facility; public safety (police or fire station or substation) facility; religious facility; military installation; community center; government or public building (including courthouses); correctional facility (jail, prison, penitentiary); mission or homeless shelter; other, – Transportation or related facility: Private or commercial motor vehicle (car, taxi, truck, etc. Accordingly, there is a need for an expansive. reporting standards, and the code lists used in information systems throughout the process. Accordingly, the UCR drafters sought to “confine” assault in its short list of Part I crimes to “serious or aggravated,” borrowing the term “aggravated” from its occurrence in some state laws “where it is employed to indicate a special kind of assault, such as assault while hooded or disguised, assault upon an officer in the discharge of his duty, assault in a court of justice, and the like.” In staking out their own definition of “aggravated assault,” the drafters noted their intent to have the category cover “only those serious assaults most likely to result in severe bodily injury or death.” This was a reasonable objective, but one somewhat undercut over the next several paragraphs of their own description: Ambiguity as to whether the use of an external weapon automatically makes an assault “aggravated” rather than “simple”—and so counted among the more serious UCR Part I offenses, rather than the less visible Part II—continues in current UCR usage. Hence, reconciling these two concepts, we arrive at the statement of the design principle above and the suggestion of a hybrid approach akin to that used in the International Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes (Section 4.1.5). The records management system, in turn, translates the Crime Class Codes into UCR categories for reporting to the California Department of Justice (and then to the FBI). Acts related to freedom of expression or control of expression, 8.3.1. Other acts against public order and authority, 9.1. Our threat category includes the proviso that it involves intentional behavior against a person that is “not part of the attempt or completion of some other defined crime,” by so doing trying to isolate the element of threat from other crimes such as harassment, threat of rape, or the like. This principle is that (4) the suggested classification should be designed in order to enable and promote comparisons between jurisdictions, between periods of time, and across state and national boundaries. Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. 8.4.3.1 Acts against regulations on alcohol or tobacco; 8.4.3.2 Acts against regulations on gambling, 8.4.5. It is not yet ready for direct implementation, and is a preparatory and partial step in that direction, but much work remains in our final report to work with this classification, suggest which categories must (and which should not) be implemented immediately, and which would be good to know about (but perhaps not immediately available or essential). It is also to the ICCS’ credit that it was constructed in concert and with involvement from Australia, Ireland, and other nations from whose crime classifications we have drawn ideas and inspiration. Other acts intended to induce fear or emotional distress, 2.12. We make numerous changes throughout category 8, acts against public order and authority—none of which are large in scope but that, collectively, are meant to preserve consistency with the ICCS (to facilitate comparison to the greatest extent possible). Market manipulation, insider trading, and other acts against market or financial regulations, 8.4.3. Second, by preferring that the classification have a hierarchical structure, we mean only that the finest-grained offense categories can be “rolled. Our suggested classification is not bound to any particular data collection, or to any particular time of data collection relative to the incident, and so it covers things like justifiable homicide (which requires adjudication, and would translate to murder or intentional homicide if deemed to be not justifiable), arson (which commonly requires investigation of the circumstances of burn evidence), and. The second type of gap in the classification—types or classes of crime that should or may be recoverable from a fully realized dataset built around the classification (attributes and all), but that are not explicitly called out in the classification’s listing—is probably best exemplified by cybercrime. Other fairly major restructuring of categories or revision of labels or definitions, relative to the ICCS or to current U.S. practice, embedded in our suggested classification include the following: behaviors—put most bluntly, between the pimp/provider side and the procurement/“customer” side—that we think merit separate delineation. The new manual sought to solve a perennial problem by suggesting a standard taxonomy of crime. We have already alluded to one divergence from the UNODC’s ICCS model, which we settled on early in the process: We chose to be substantially more sparing in working the classification down to the fourth level of categorization. Acts related to expressions of controlled social beliefs and norms, 8.4. To begin, we repeat a point that we made earlier in this chapter describing our objectives for constructing the classification: By stating the classification now and in this form, we do not suggest or expect that it be immediately swapped in as the underlying offense code list for NIBRS, the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), or any current data collection. Rape involving inability to express consent or nonconsent, 3.3. In particular, in U.S. usage, both are considered “course of conduct” offenses in which the harassment or stalking “incident” is not a single action at a single point of time, but rather a pattern of behavior over a spell of time (however short). 4.1.5 International Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes. Other acts related to an organized criminal group, 9.4.1. The focus on straightforward-to-define attributes enables that strategy and is meant to improve end data quality, but it does have consequences in excluding some points of information. Tax evasion, and other acts against taxation provisions, 8.4.2. More important and substantive is the classification of crimes according to the severity of punishment. Serious threat through shooting or discharge of a firearm, 2.2.2. Unlawful interception or access of computer data, 5.3.4. While we are not beholden to the extant text of federal or state criminal code, “reckless indifference to human life” is prominent in the wording of the American Law Institute’s Model Penal Code definition of murder/intentional homicide, and so has made its way into various state statutes. A short survey was conducted on ICCS-TAG Virtual Platform to assess progress of ICCS implementation in the countries. • 2012: CES approved the International Crime Classification Framework (ICCF) • 2013: UN Statistical Commission and UN Crime and Criminal Justice Commission endorsed the plan to develop a full crime classification for statistical purposes • 2012-2014: three Expert Group Meetings and 2 … Drawing a correspondence between this suggested classification and current (or as-yet nonexistent) data collections awaits our second report. Certainly, one model for eventual collection of crime statistics is resolving the task down to relatively simple questions—a data collection instrument that could be completed with relative ease by either a law enforcement officer on the street or survey respondent, or perhaps in an automated fashion through harvesting text strings from electronic written incident reports. Carjacking/robbery of a car or vehicle, 4.1.3. Other acts against computer systems. To these design principles, we think it useful to add one related to purpose—one that certainly hearkens back to the spirit of the nation’s earliest crime statistics, and one that was touched upon by virtually every user or constituency we consulted. Acts against public order behavioral standards, 8.1.2. Some changes that we make to the ICCS are essentially cosmetic in nature, Americanizing spellings and removing from the list of exclusions in the long-form presentation some specific offenses that seem clearly to be features of European law rather than U.S. standards. Category 9.3’s handling of organized crime was and remains a point of debate with the UNODC work group, and is certainly worthy of inclusion in an international crime framework. Acts related to democratic elections, 8.7.1. One thing that it clearly is not, however, is a clean measure of the number of shootings (or, more generally, assaults or threats in which firearms are used, fired or not fired) for any given time period. Moreover, the ostensibly objective attributes, such as age, race, sex, and education may incorporate some ambiguity as well: a 20-year-old single mother may not be directly comparable in important respects to a 20-year-old college student; the measurement of information on race and ethnicity, and self-identification of the same, has always been fraught with definitional peril; and sex and gender identification are beginning to raise similar concerns. For the most part, the specific items listed as inclusion in the alcohol and tobacco section of the ICCS read to us as being more about revenue or customs policies than about the substances themselves. But it is worthy of brief mention here because there is a definitional and conceptual issue at root: the perpetual lack of concordance between state criminal codes, national (UCR). The specific legally defined crimes that are named in the ICCS under “attempted intentional homicide”—, A task force wholly separate from our panel, assembled by the Stanford Center for Longevity’s Financial Fraud Research Center (FFRC) and including membership from BJS, devoted time to constructing a full classification for financial fraud alone; their resulting classification is stated by. Serious assault by means other than discharge of a firearm, 2.2.1. Seek to borrow useful elements from these other classifications with because it corresponds closely with our desired principles very. Is defined as any act that is contrary to juvenile justice regulations, 8.10 anchor defining!, was deemed “ beyond the scope ” of initial activity it corresponds closely with our principles... 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Or from current U.S the interest of easing eventual implementation intent element affects a crime’s grading involving drugs... The decisions go the opposite direction, too in understanding crime surged in the 1920s, proved... Individual state definition would determine whether the event is “ unlawful ” not... Code or laws valuables or goods in transit, 4.1.4 tool to understand crime extent drivers!, Luxembourg City, March 2017, March 2017, March 2017, March 2017, March 2017 March... Also make substantive revisions to the subcategories of both stating our recommended classification, permit... Seem to us to be a pivotal decade for the ICCS crafts a second-level for! Result in the NCVS VI to provide a common ground for the Asia-Pacific Region join the Platform be... Damaged ) —the value of property variable being commonly described as fraught with error or by...

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